By Paolo Pasini; Slobodan Žumer; Claudio Zannoni

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The pressure exerted by a column of liquid is commonly called the ‘hydrostatic pressure’. 2 with F = mg. To calculate F we need to know the mass m of the column of liquid, which is its mass density, ρ, multiplied by its volume, V: m = ρV. The ﬁrst step, therefore, is to calculate the volume of a cylindrical column of liquid. θ Answer Let the column have cross-sectional area A; then its volume is Ah and its mass is m = ρAh. 3) Diathermic wall Energy as heat Note that the hydrostatic pressure is independent of the shape and cross-sectional area of the column.

45 atm in (a) pascal, (b) bar. 4(b) Express a pressure of 222 atm in (a) pascal, (b) bar. 0°C, to the Kelvin scale. 18 K, to the Celsius scale. 2 is a relation between the Kelvin and Celsius scales. 5°C) in degrees Fahrenheit. 6(b) The Rankine scale is a version of the thermodynamic temperature scale in which the degrees (°R) are the same size as degrees Fahrenheit. Derive an expression relating the Rankine and Kelvin scales and express the freezing point of water in degrees Rankine. 0°C. 0°C? 0°C.

We shall see that, because many physical properties depend on the pressure acting on a sample, it is appropriate to select a certain value of the pressure to report their values. The standard pressure for reporting physical quantities is currently deﬁned as p 7 = 1 bar exactly. We shall see the role of the standard pressure starting in Chapter 2. To specify the state of a sample fully it is also necessary to give its temperature, T. The temperature is formally a property that determines in which direction energy will ﬂow as heat when two samples are placed in contact through thermally conducting walls: energy ﬂows from the sample with the higher temperature to the sample with the lower temperature.