By Raz Miri
The efficacy of cardiac resynchronization treatment (CRT) via biventricular pacing (BVP) has been confirmed via various reports in sufferers being affected by congestive middle failure. in an effort to in achieving a suggestion for optimum remedy with BVP units, an automatic non-invasive method in response to an electrophysiological desktop version of the guts is gifted. The awarded examine investigates an off-line optimization set of rules in response to diversified electrode positioning and timing delays.
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4. Lead V4 is placed in the fifth intercostal space in the midclavicular line. 30 Chapter 2. Medical Foundations 5. Lead V5 is placed between V4 and V6. 6. Lead V6 is placed in the fifth intercostal space in the midclavicular line. 23. Leads V1 to V4 are referred to anterior leads on the other hand leads V5 and V6 are referred to left lateral leads. 23. Orientation angles of precordial leads . Wilson  introduced a common point where the limb leads are connected together through resistors each with 5 kΩ.
Intra-ventricular dyssynchrony in criterion 5 is defined as the difference of at least 60 ms between the timing of the peak systolic velocities of the septum versus the lateral wall by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) [26, 293]. The impact of age and gender on CRT outcome has been investigated by Zardkoohi et al. . There were no significant differences between men and women regarding age except those suffering from ischemic cardiomyopathy. This finding was also supported by study of Bleeker et al.
Its electrical charge drops to a minimal negative potential, which maintains only for a short time. Afterward it rises gradually until it reaches the threshold for the sudden depolarization that is an action potential. 15. The SA node is triggered at a rate of 60 to 100 times per minute. a). Every cell in the heart has the ability to behave like a pacemaker cell. 2. 15. The electrical depolarization-repolarization cycle of a cardiac pacemaker cell. Point A is the minimal negative potential. The gentle rising slope between points A and B represents a slow, gradual depolarization.