By Kamal K. Kar (eds.)
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Additional resources for Composite Materials: Processing, Applications, Characterizations
Chung DDL (1994) Carbon ﬁber composites. Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston 5. Mazumdar SK (2002) Composites manufacturing: materials, product and process engineering. CRC Press, Boca Raton 6. Avila AF, Morais DTS (2005) A multiscale investigation based on variance analysis for hand lay-up composite manufacturing. Compos Sci Technol 65(6):827–838 7. Otaka M (1997) Hand lay-up molding process. Japanese Patent JP 09,314,686 8. Mariatti M, Chum PK (2005) Effect of laminate conﬁguration on the properties of glass ﬁberreinforced plastics (GFRPs) mixed composites.
Challenges in Manufacturing of Polymer Matrix Composites The manufacture of advanced composite parts involves the preparation of a network of ﬁbers according to the desired shape of the component, impregnating this ﬁber network with the resin, and curing of the resin while the part is being supported. The major challenges are efﬁcient handling of the ﬁbers and application of uniform pressure during the curing of resin. The ﬁbers are stiff in nature and do not ﬂow. For this reason, the continuous ﬁbers are stacked in layers, which are successively impregnated with the resin or formed into a preform and kept in a mold.
The heat transferred between the energy-carrying ﬂuid and the bag-compositetool element triggers exothermic curing reactions, leading to compaction of composite. Simpliﬁed energy balance equations are used assuming a negligible thermal gradient throughout the thickness. The relation between interlaminar fracture toughness and pressure condition in the autoclave molding of composite laminates has been proposed by Jiang et al. . A change in curing pressure affects the morphology of matrix and ﬁbers, and the interfacial strength of ﬁber and matrix.