By Sucheng Chan
Chinese language American Transnationalism considers the various ways that chinese language dwelling within the usa throughout the exclusion period maintained ties with China via a continuing interchange of individuals and fiscal assets, in addition to political and cultural rules. This booklet keeps the exploration of the exclusion period began in earlier volumes: access Denied, which examines the innovations that chinese language american citizens used to protest, undermine, and keep away from the exclusion legislation; and Claiming the United States, which lines the advance of chinese language American ethnic identities. Taken jointly, the 3 volumes underscore the complexities of the chinese language immigrant event and the ways that its contexts replaced over the sixty-one 12 months interval.
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Extra resources for Chinese American Transnationalism: The Flow of People, Resources, and Ideas between China and America During the Exclusion Era (Asian American History & Cultu)
In 1901, Gee See, a merchant’s wife residing in Los Angeles, submitted an application for readmission upon her return from a trip to China complete with a full-length photograph and an X-ray of her feet. ” The photograph showed Gee See sitting down and holding a small child. Her small feet were clearly displayed. 75 As the Bureau of Immigration valued (and at times required) testimony from whites over Chinese to substantiate claims of entry and reentry into the United States, this assistance and support was very valuable.
Overseas migration in the thousands was not accomplished by crossing the Paciﬁc in ﬁshing boats, wooden junks, or even clipper ships. Migration in such numbers demanded a level of technological development and the existence of global networks of trade more sophisticated and reliable than had existed in China before the nineteenth century. Such facilities rapidly developed in Hong Kong after it came under British rule at the end of the First Opium War. People in southeastern China had only to go to this nearby port to ﬁnd shipping companies, labor recruiters, friends, or businessmen who could tell them about opportunities abroad, and enabled them to buy tickets on credit to get to North America and elsewhere.
60 Given these failures, Chinese turned to a strategy that relied on negotiating their way through exclusion, instead of attempting to dismantle the laws altogether. They ﬁrst educated themselves about the details, loopholes, and enforcement procedures of the laws. Chinese and their friends turned to federal immigration ofﬁcials for information about admission and readmission standards and regulations. 61 Defying Exclusion 15 Networks of family and kin proved to be essential in ﬁnancing and facilitating the journey to the United States and helping an immigrant navigate his or her passage through the bureaucratic procedures.