Basic Electromagnetism by E. R. Dobbs (auth.) PDF

By E. R. Dobbs (auth.)

Professor Dobbs presents a chic and transparent account of the topic, top the coed from electrostatics via to Maxwell's equations and electromagnetic waves, masking the entire fabric wanted by means of a pupil taking classes on electrical energy and magnetism and electromagnetic waves.

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32) then we must remember that for many materials er is not just a number. As we have emphasized before, P (and hence D) is not proportional to E for nonlinear materials and, in any case, Xe (and so er ) can vary with frequency, temperature, crystal direction, etc. Dielectrics 27 This is one reason why we refer to er as the relative permittivity rather than the dielectric constant of a dielectric. 3 Boundary relations What happens to the electric field when it crosses the boundary between two dielectrics of permittivities e1 = er 1eo and e2 = er2eO?

26 Electrostatics inside the dielectric. At the ends of the dielectric slab where P is tangential to the surface the surface density of charge is zero. It is the normal component of P that produces a surface charge, so that for an arbitrary surface S inside a dielectric (Fig. 21) the charge dqp displaced across a surface element dS is P·dS. = -qp Hence, the flux of P is given by a type of Gauss's law for polarized dielectrics: Is P·dS= - Lppd! 29), we have Is (eoE + P)·dS= L Pr d ! 30) so that Gauss's law can also be written Is D·dS= Lpr d !

EqUipotent 10 I surface E o= 0 /"1' 'x /' {"/~~ Gaussian surface ---'" Sect ion area A 5 (0) (b) Fig. 13 (a) Electric field inside a conductor is zero. (b) Outside a charged conductor it depends on the charge density at the surface a C m - 2. 17) the gradient of the electric potential at the surface, grad cP, must be zero and so the surface of a conductor is an equipotential surface and the interior of the conductor is an equipotential region (cP = constant). When a conductor is charged the excess charges stay on the surface, where they are not completely free.

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