By Romulo F. Baltazar MD FACC
Basic and Bedside Electrocardiography is the 1st e-book to combine the fundamentals of ECG interpretation with the newest medical instructions for treating sufferers with ECG abnormalities. each one concise, bulleted bankruptcy discusses a illness nation, provides many tracings as examples, presents transparent illustrations of pathophysiology, and gives guidance for prognosis and therapy of particular entities.
More than six hundred illustrations reduction readers in spotting ordinarily encountered ECG abnormalities. Diagrammatic illustrations on the finish of so much chapters summarize different ECG abnormalities mentioned, to assist readers realize the various arrhythmias extra simply. An appendix presents quick-reference details on regularly occurring intravenous agents.
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Extra info for Basic and Bedside Electrocardiography
If the flow of current is toward ϩ90Њ, which is the positive side of aVF, the tallest deflection will be recorded in aVF (Fig. 5A). If the flow of current is toward Ϫ90Њ away from the +30 0 II aVF 0 + 90 Figuring Out the Electrical Axis when an Equiphasic Complex is Present ■ 0 - 30 aVL +150 ■ Leads III and aVR 0 B ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ + 60 0 0 III + 120 0 C positive side of aVF, lead aVF will record the deepest deflection (Fig. 5B). 5C and D summarize the possible deflections of the other leads in the frontal plane if lead I is equiphasic.
Leads V3 and V4: The QRS complexes are equiphasic in leads V3 and V4 because these leads represent the septal area and is the transition zone between the deep S waves in V1 and V2 and the tall R waves in V5 and V6 (Fig. 19). Cardiac Rotation ■ Cardiac rotation: In the horizontal plane, a change in the electrical position of the heart is described as rotation. qxd 1/30/09 11:23 AM Page 40 Aptara Inc. 40 Chapter 4 Right LV Left 0 V6 0 RV V1 1200 Counterclockwise rotation or early transition: When the heart rotates counterclockwise, the transition zone moves earlier, toward V1 or V2.
A lead is bipolar when both positive and negative electrodes contribute to the deflection in the ECG. The positive and negative electrodes are placed at an equal distance away from the heart and the resulting ECG deflection is the sum of the electrical forces going in opposite directions. Leads I, II, and III are examples of bipolar leads. ■ Lead I: Lead I is conventionally constructed such that the left arm electrode is attached to the positive pole of the galvanometer and the right arm to the negative pole (Fig.