By Nora Berend
It is a examine of the commercial, social, felony and spiritual place of 3 minorities in the medieval Christian state of Hungary. The publication demonstrates that the prestige of such minorities depended now not easily on Christian spiritual tenets, yet on a bigger framework--including the felony and social approach, monetary probabilities, and conflicts among kings and the clergy. It additionally investigates the location "at the gate of Christendom"--the frontier with the nomad world--and the way in which this affected either Christian and non-Christian interplay and Christian ideology.
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Additional info for At the gate of Christendom
Ali then studied with several illustrious scholars of the time and became well versed in a variety of disciplines, including Hadith, law, and arithmetic. Described as urbane and dignified, he was also deemed an excellent poet by his peers. In his late teens he settled in Medina with his family. ” Not heeding his father’s exhortations to abandon this trivial habit, “he was punished” with the loss of his hearing. 19 It was possible for men who were hard of hearing to receive highlevel judicial appointments.
James Grehan has aptly illustrated how in Ottoman Damascus, for example “most people relied heavily on verbal pacts to conduct business, conclude agreements, and enforce contracts. [ . . ” James Grehan, “The Mysterious Power of Words: Language, Law, and Culture in Deafness and Muteness 35 restrictions on those who experienced hearing loss; rather, it strove to acknowledge the realities confronting deaf people and to accommodate their needs. Muhammad al-Tumurtashi, a sixteenth-century Hanafi mufti from Gaza and the author of an influential law compendium, was one day asked to issue a fatwa concerning the validity of a divorce between a woman and her deaf husband.
It is to the lives of these individuals that we now turn. Deafness as Lived Experience It was not unusual to lose one’s hearing in the Ottoman Arab world. Siraj al-Din al-Maqdisi (d. 17 Others became partially or completely deaf as a result of accidents or illnesses. For example, Ibn al-Furfur (d. 1627) was born into a prominent Damascene family of judges and scholars and was able to receive a first-rate education under the guidance of several acclaimed teachers. He excelled particularly in Hanafi law, which he taught in a local school.