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By National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Naval Studies Board, Committee for an Assessment of Non-Lethal Weapons Science and Technology

Non-lethal guns (NLWs) are designed to lessen fatalities and different undesired collateral harm whilst used. occasions of the previous few years together with the assault at the USS Cole have raised principles in regards to the function NLWs can play in bettering help to naval forces. specifically to what quantity and in what parts should still division of the military (DoN) -sponsored technology and know-how (S&T) supply a learn base for constructing NLW functions? to aid with this query and to judge the present NLWs software, the Joint Non-Lethal guns Directorate (JNLWD) and the workplace of Naval learn (ONR) asked the nationwide learn Council practice an review of NLWs technological know-how and expertise. The document provides the result of that overview. It discusses promising NLW S&T components, improvement accomplishments and matters approximately NLW, and sequence of techniques approximately destiny NLW improvement and application.

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S. S. treaties. S. Coast Guard often uses Navy assets when carrying out its own law enforcement responsibilities, particularly drug interdiction and fisheries enforcement. Ship interdiction requires the ability to detect, as well as to delay, stop, or temporarily disable, vessels of various types, sizes, and speeds. Ramming or collision is a high-risk action and is usually unacceptable. Intercepted vessels must be boarded, usually in difficult conditions, and this requires the means to subdue potentially hostile individuals or entire crews at close range in confined areas.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Submitting and coordinating inputs into Service program objective memorandums (POMs) for Service-unique NLW research, development, testing, and evaluation (RDT&E) and procurement. 1Reference 3: Department of Defense. 1996. , March 15. Reference 4: Department of Defense. 1996. , March 15. 1). S. Marine Corps. Despite its relatively low funding, the JNLWD was highly visible to both Congress and DOD, and it was under pressure to focus on acquiring available technology that could be fielded as quickly as possible—especially to provide NLWs to troops already located in the Balkans and on other peace support opera- INTRODUCTION 15 tions.

To be effective, the NLW must operate at intensities sufficient to induce avoidance, but below the threshold for serious injury. Acoustic Technologies Acoustics have been considered as a non-lethal weapons technology to disperse crowds and to temporarily startle or incapacitate individuals. A wide variety of effects have been explored or proposed. Acoustical energy at audible frequencies (about 20 to 16,000 hertz (Hz)) strongly couples into the ear; continuous sound in this frequency range can cause pain at a threshold of approximately 135 dB.

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