By Braj Kachru
This e-book presents an important studying for college students and researchers of global Englishes. it's an insightful and provocative research of the types and features of English in Asia, its acculturation and nativization, and the cutting edge dimensions of Asian creativity.
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Extra info for Asian Englishes: Beyond The Canon (Asian Englishes Today)
In this jungle of metaphors English is Hydra-like with many heads, including one that, in India’s metaphysical writer Raja Rao’s view ‘elevates us all’ (1978a). Rao has no hesitation in equating English in India with the Brahmanic sacred language Sanskrit, as discussed in Chapter 7. The metaphors ‘the flowering tree’ or ‘the speaking tree’ point to yet other dimensions of English, that of its multiculturalism, its pluralism and its immense hybridity. The discussion that follows combines some aspect of all these metaphors, since most of them also represent our Asian perceptions of the language.
This mythology has appropriated all collective initiatives — intellectual and pragmatic. In each place there is a tendency to assign Asian users of the language to a predetermined place, locale and role. These myths have led to the constructs of three types: that of HIERARCHY in terms of interlocutors and interactional contexts; CANONICITY in equating the medium with essentially Judeo-Christian contexts; and ICONICITY in terms of canons of creativity. There are ardent believers and promoters — of these myths in practically all Anglophone countries, and Asia is no exception to that.
The Outer Circle is represented by, for example, India, Singapore and the Philippines. In these countries, English is used as an institutionalized additional language. The term ‘institutionalized’ has several implications as discussed in my original proposal of this classification in 1985. And the Expanding Circle is represented by, for example, China, Thailand, Taiwan and Korea, where English continues to be used primarily as a foreign language. However, dynamics of English in the Expanding Circle is fast changing.