By Thomas E. Quantrille
[Main textual content] -- Appendix B: faster (PDC) Prolog software for EXSEP
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Additional info for Artificial intelligence in chemical engineering
In the statements £ o o d g _ i n t o ( a , c ) and £ e e d s _ i n t o ( a , c , f ) , Prolog views each f e e d s _ i n t o as a different functor. , f o o d g j l n t o ) . However, one has two arguments and the other has three, so Prolog views them as two separate functors. The arity of a functor refers to how many arguments the functor has. The f o o d a j l n t o (a, c ) has an arity of two. The f e a d s j i n t o (a, c , f) has an arity of three. Functors with different arities are treated as different, even if they have the same name.
We have introduced four rule orderings, sets one through four, to assess the effects of following these two techniques. 2 summarizes the four orderings. Table 22. Summary of the effects of rule ordering using recursion. Obedience to Technique Set Rule Structure One Two Comments One upstream (X, Y) : -feeds_into(X,Y) . yes yes Most robust; handles all questions quickly and efficiently. yes no Not as efficient, but will not go into an infinite loop. no yes Will go into an infinite loop if the first rule repeatedly fails.
5. Trace of upstream(d^). 3 Declarative and Procedural Nature of Prolog 47 In the u p s t r e a m clause above, a simple change of the rule order, although declaratively correct, resulted in procedural disaster. In this case, a solution does exist, but Prolog will never find i t Infinite loops are not unique to Prolog. They can also occur in procedural languages such as FORTRAN. Extra caution does need to be exercised in using recursion, however. A unique aspect of Prolog is that a program can be declaratively correct, but procedurally incorrect.