John E. Hobbs's Applied Climatology. A Study of Atmospheric Resources PDF

By John E. Hobbs

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For a given liquid water content the reflectivity of a cloud is controlled by the abundance of cloud droplets, which in turn depends on the number of cloud condensation nuclei. Most man-made aerosols, particularly sulphate and nitrate compounds, are good cloud condensation nuclei, but their effects on cloud cover are not known. MitcheU (1971) suggested that aerosol chmatic effects are hkely to include a slight decrease of cloudiness and precipitation. 3 Fluorocarbons (chlorofluoromethanes) A World Meteorological Organization statement on anthropogenic modification of the ozone layer (WMO, 1976) concluded that evidence supports the view that a continued release of chlorofluoromethanes into the atmosphere may lead to a significant reduction in stratospheric ozone.

Dummlers Verlag). SENSITIVITY OF STATIC STABILITY \ \ INCREASE IN RESPONSE TIMEOFSURFACE PFB Positive Feedback LARGE SURFACE TEMPERATURE TEMPERATURE FEEDBACK^ MODERATION OF CUMATIC EXTREMES HYDROLOGIC CYCLE FEEDBACK OCEAN-ATMOSPHERE DESTABILIZING EFFECT (PFB) EXPANSION OF BAROCLINICITY OF POLAR ICE COVER / / MOVEMENT EQUATORWARD DECREASE IN TEMPERATURE LAPSE RATE-SURFACE\ k PLANETARY ALBEDO SOLAR ENERGY ABSORPTION PROVISION OF WATER FOR DAMPENING OR ACCELERATION EDDY HEAT FLUXES BY AIR MOTION REDISTRIBUTION OF HEAT CHANGE IN RADIATION BALANCE INCREASE IN C02 FEEDBACK RADIATIVE-DYNAMIC I FEEDBACK MECHANISMS { INCREASE IN / ALBEDO- FEEDBACK ™°Ζ%™Ζ™ο°27°* TEMPERATURE SNOW & ICE COVER INCREASE IN SNOW & ICE COVER STABILIZING EFFECT (NFB) / IN TROPOSPHERE FIG.

2. 3. 4. of 5. 6. Chmate is not fixed. Chmate tends to change rapidly rather than gradually. Cuhural changes usually accompany climatic changes. What we think of as normal chmate, at present, is not normal in the longer perspective centuries. When the high latitudes cool, the monsoons tend to fail. Cool periods of earth history are periods of greater than normal chmatic instability. The major causes of chmatic variability can be conveniently grouped into two basic categories. The first category includes internal causes which involve exchanges of energy between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and cryosphere.

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