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Following the example just given, an adult playing a hide-and-seek game could begin by partially hiding a toy with a towel and then add the challenge of completely covering the toy. The following table includes a list of developmental norms for infants and toddlers, highlighting significant tasks. Norms are grouped by areas of development, and within each area the specific tasks have been arranged sequentially. Page 3 Developmental Milestones Physical Development Birth to Three Months Four to Six Months Seven to Nine Months Ten to Twelve Months Thirteen to Eighteen Months Nineteen to Twenty-Four Months Acts reflexively sucking, stepping, rooting Holds cube in hand Sits independently Supports entire body weight on legs Builds tower of two cubes Walks up stairs independently, one step at a time Swipes at objects in front of body, uncoordinated Rolls from back to side Stepping reflex returns Voluntarily releases objects held in hands Scribbles vigorously Jumps in place Holds head erect and steady Sits with support Crawls Cruises along furniture or steady objects Walks proficiently Kicks a ball Lifts head and shoulders Transfers objects from hand to hand Pulls to standing position Stands independently Walks up stairs with assistance Runs in a modified fashion Rolls from side to back Sits in tripod position using arms for support Claps hands together Walks independently Shows a decided preference for one hand Stands with adults' assistance Crawls up stairs or steps Uses finger and thumb to pick up objects Language and Communication Development Birth to Three Months Four to Six Months Seven to Nine Months Ten to Twelve Months Thirteen to Eighteen Months Nineteen to Twenty-Four Months Communicates with cries, grunts, and facial expressions Babbles spontaneously Varies babble in loudness, pitch, and rhythm Uses preverbal gestures to influence the behavior of others Engages in "jargon talk" Continues using telegraphic speech Prefers human voices Acquires sounds of native language in babble Adds d, t, n, and w to repertoire of babbling sounds Demonstrates word comprehension skills Engages in telegraphic speech Talks, 25 percent of words being understandable Coos Participates in interactive games initiated by adults Produces gestures to communicate Waves good-bye Experiences a burst of language development Refers to self by name Laughs Takes turns while interacting Says "mama" and "dada" but does not associate words with particular people Speaks recognizable first word Comprehends approximately 50 words Joins three or four words into a sentence Canonical, systematic consonant-vowel pairings; babbling occurs Points to desired objects Initiates familiar games with adults Comprehends approximately 300 words Expressive language includes a vocabulary of approximately 250 words Page 4 Cognitive Development Birth to Three Months Four to Six Months Seven to Nine Months Ten to Twelve Months Thirteen to Eighteen Months Nineteen to Twenty-Four Months Acts reflexively Enjoys repeating acts, such as shaking a rattle, that produce results in the external world Distinguishes familiar from unfamiliar faces Solves sensorimotor problems by deliberately using schemas Explores properties of objects by acting on them in novel ways Points to and identifies objects upon request, such as when reading a book, touring, etc.
Likewise, if you are a parent, you will want to share this information with your child's caregiver, your significant other, or your child's pediatrician. Then, too, you may want to compile a portfolio or scrapbook containing a developmental checklist, photographs, videotapes, artwork, and other documents representing the child's growth and development. Finally, assessment must be conducted to ensure that data is gathered for all areas of development. People have different biases and values. As a result, they may overlook or slight one area of development because of selective attention.
Provide positive reinforcement when the infant successfully makes contact with one of the rattles. For example, say: "(Olivia), you did it! You are playing with the rattle. " 4. " 5. " Highlighting Development The newborn's distance vision is blurred. It is 10 to 30 times poorer than that of most adults. Thus, the visual acuity of an infant is about the same as adults who wear corrective glasses or contact lenses (Feldman, 1998). An infant's visual system will not develop unless it is exercised.