By Halil Inalcik
This significant contribution to Ottoman heritage is now released in paperback in volumes: the unique unmarried hardback quantity (CUP 1995) has been broadly acclaimed as a landmark within the examine of 1 of the main enduring and influential empires of recent occasions. The authors offer a richly particular account of the social and fiscal heritage of the Ottoman sector, from the origins of the Empire round 1300 to the eve of its destruction in the course of international struggle One. The breadth of variety and the fullness of insurance make those volumes crucial for an realizing of latest advancements in either the center East and the post-Soviet Balkan global.
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Additional resources for An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, vol. 1, 1300-1600
After the Greek army was driven out of Anatolia, villagers in the Aegean region began to cultivate their fields in safety. Yet, due to wartime deaths, there was an important decline in the number of hands returning to work in agriculture. Thus, the growth in agricultural output is an indication of the extent of recovery of older levels of activity. Since it was not through a massive increase in the labour input that this recovery occurred (immigration into Turkey was only one tenth of the population that emigrated or was lost during the war), we should look at the changes in the capital input.
These measures undoubtedly contributed to the recovery of pre-war levels of production and marketisation. In addition to these policies, the principal measure taken by the government relating to agriculture was the abolition of the traditional tithe. This abolition allowed the farmers to dispose of a larger share of the surplus, thus increasing their commercialisation potential. With diminished taxes the government could Agriculture and the world economy 37 have utilised a terms-of-trade policy aimed at transferring agricultural surplus to the state, or to the urban sector.
43m in 38 The definition of a peripheral economy m 1928). 134 Investment in agriculture was accompanied by an increase in the area cultivated. The cultivation of commercial crops increased as well as the area of grain land. The area sown with wheat, for example, increased by 15% between 1927 and 1929,135 after pre-war levels of cultivation had already been recovered. 137 The productivity of land under wheat cultivation increased due in part to capital intensification. 1 The results of this development in agriculture before the depression may be summarised in the statement that pre-war levels of activity were recovered with the encouragement of the state.