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Lebanon, NH 03767, USA, 1996. 42. D. H. White and D. Wolf, Research in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion, ed. A. V. Bridgewater and J. L. Kuester, Elsevier Applied Science, New York, 1988. 43. nrel. htm 44. C. Okkerse and H. , 1999, 4, 107–114. 45. B. Kamm, M. Kamm and K. ), Die Gru¨ne Bioraﬃnerie/The Green Bioreﬁnery, Technologiekonzept, 1st International Symposium Green Bioreﬁnery/Gru¨ne Bioraﬃnerie, Oct. 1997, Neuruppin, Germany, Proceedings, Berlin, 1998, ISBN 3-929672-06-5. 46. M. ), Green Bioreﬁnery 2nd International Symposium Green Bioreﬁnery, October 13–14, 1999, Feldbach, Austria, Proceedings, SUSTAIN, Verein zur Koordination von Forschung u¨ber Nachhaltigkeit, Graz TU, Austria, 1999.
CTO is not a triacylglyceride like most vegetable oils, but is actually a mixture of ﬁve components with diﬀerent boiling points, which are split by fractionation into heads (which boil ﬁrst), then tall oil fatty acids (TOFA), distilled tall oil (DTO, a mixture of fatty and rosin acids), tall oil rosin (TOR) and pitch (the unsaponiﬁable residue). 36 Chapter 1 TOFA is similar to seed oil oleic acid. Important applications of TOFA are the manufacture of TOFA esters as solvents, lubricants and carrier oils, alkyd resins and dimer acids.
Kamm and P. Gruber, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2006, vol. 1, pp. 209–226, ISBN: 3-527-31027-4. 26. A. Fiechter, Plastics from Bacteria and for Bacteria: Poly(ß-hydroxyalkanoates) as Natural, Biocompatible, and Biodegradable Polyesters, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1990, pp. 77–93. 27. F. Rexen, New industrial application possibilities for straw, Documentation of Svebio Phytochemistry Group (Danish), Fytokemi i Norden, Stockholm, Sweden, 1986-03-06, 1986, 12. 28. J. Coombs and K. Hall, in Cereals – Novel Uses and Processes, ed.