By Birkhoff G.D.

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In this section we give the expressions of the field and the potential of some simple charge configurations. − Field and potential on the axis of a uniformly charged ring of radius R and charge q at a distance z from its center: E(z) = K o qz ez, ( R + z 2 ) 3/ 2 2 V(z) = Koq R2 + z2 . 52] − Field and potential on the axis of a disk of radius R and uniform charge density qs at a distance z from its center: E(z) = zqs 1 1 [ − ]ez, 2 2ε o z R + z2 V(z) = qs [ R 2 + z 2 − |z|]. 53] − Field and potential of a plane of uniform charge density qs: E(z) = ± (qs/2εo) ez , V(z) = ∓ (qs z/2εo) + (qsR/2εo).

Dr requires that UP and the energy in general be true scalars. 8. Electric charges in nature Although matter is neutral on the macroscopic scale, it is comprised of charged and neutral particles. 602 189 2 × 10−19 C. 3). The stable particles, which are the building blocks of matter, are the proton of charge +e, the electron of charge −e, and the neutron (which is neutral as its name indicates). The electrification by rubbing is simply a transfer of electrons from a body of low electronic affinity to another of higher affinity.

50] where the derivatives ∂αV are evaluated at xα = 0. E(0). 51] The first term is the potential energy of the total charge q = Σk qk and the second term is the potential energy of the electric dipole moment p = Σk qk rk, both located at O. Knowing UE, we may show that the resultant force exerted by E on the charges is the force exerted on the total charge q and the resultant moment of the electric force is the moment Γ = p × E exerted on p. Particularly, if the total charge is zero (as in the case of a non-ionized atoms and molecules), the action of E on the charge distribution reduces to its action on the dipole moment p.